The rising incidence of serious fungal diseases represents a growing threat to human health. Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated yeast saprophyte with global distribution, has been recognized as an important emerging pathogen. Humans frequently develop asymptomatic or mild infection with C. neoformans, but individuals with impaired host defense systems may develop severe pneumonia and potentially fatal meningoencephalitis. Insight into the biology and virulence of C. neoformans is advancing rapidly and will be propelled even further by the recently completed and published genome sequences for two related strains of C. neoformans serotype D. Several mammalian model hosts including the guinea pig, rabbit, rat, and mouse have been developed for the study of cryptococcosis. The combination of microbial genomics with well-characterized model hosts that are amenable to immunologic and genetic manipulation represents a powerful resource for comprehensive study of cryptococcal disease pathogenesis as well as vaccine and antifungal drug therapy. This review provides an introduction to each mammalian model host and briefly highlights the advantages, limitations, and potential of each system for future research involving cryptococci.
Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.
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