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Open Access Effect of Isoflurane, Atracurium, Fentanyl, and Noxious Stimulation on Bispectral Index in Pigs

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The study reported here was done to determine the relationship between anesthesia depth and bispectral index (BIS) in stimulated pigs. Isoflurane minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined using the tail-clamp method in 16 Yorkshire/Landrace-cross pigs with mean ± SEM weight of 27.7 ± 1.76 kg. One week later, BIS, ECG, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, esophageal temperature, end-tidal CO2 tension and isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaO2, PaCO2, plasma bicarbonate concentration, and base excess were determined at each of five isoflurane MAC-multiples: 0.8, 1.0, 1.3, 1.6, and 2.0. Six treatments were studied: isoflurane; isoflurane and atracurium; isoflurane, atracurium, and fentanyl; isoflurane with noxious stimulation; isoflurane and atracurium with noxious stimulation; and isoflurane, atracurium, and fentanyl with noxious stimulation. The noxious stimulus during BIS measurement was the same as that for MAC determination. Each pig was studied three times (n = 8), and order of MAC-multiples and treatments was randomized. Data were evaluated by use of general linear model analysis of variance and linear regression analysis, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Significant differences in BIS values were identified between MAC-multiples within each treatment and between treatment 3 compared with treatments 2 and 4. Significant differences also were observed within and between treatments for heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and PaO2. Use of BIS appears reliable for identification of light versus deep anesthesia, but is of limited use for discrimination between isoflurane MAC-multiples of 1 and 1.6. We conclude that, compared with other treatments, atracurium and noxious stimulation had no significant effect on BIS.

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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61802

Publication date: 2004-08-01

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  • Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.

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