Effects of Nonylphenol and Phytoestrogen-Enriched Diet on Plasma Vitellogenin, Steroid Hormone, Hepatic Cytochrome P450 1A, and Glutathione-S-Transferase Values in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
Abstract:The effects of nonylphenol (NP) on plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and steroid hormone values, as well as hepatic cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) fed a diet with a low (formulated diet, FD) or high (commercial diet, CD) content of phytoestrogens, including genistein and daidzein. Male goldfish with secondary sexual characteristics were exposed to nominal NP concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 g/L in the water for 28 days while being fed either the FD or CD diet at 1.0% of body weight daily. Plasma VTG concentration in male goldfish exposed to 100 g of NP/L and fed FD was significantly higher than that in the FD-fed control fish at seven, 21, and 28 days. However, fish of the CD-fed group exposed to 100 g of NP/L had significantly higher plasma VTG concentration than did fish of the CD-fed control group at 28 days only. Moreover, plasma VTG concentration in fish of the CD-fed control group was about 100-fold higher than that in fish of the FD-fed control group. Although the estrogenic effects of a phytoestrogen-enriched diet caused a decrease in testosterone and/or 11-ketotestosterone values in the CD-fed fish, there was no dose-response relationship between androgen and amount of NP to which the FD-fed fish were exposed. Nonylphenol does not have appreciable effects on hepatic CYP1A and GST activities in male goldfish at concentrations as low as 100 g/L. These results suggest that NP has estrogenic activity in male goldfish at the nominal concentration of 100 g/L, and that phytoestrogens, such as genistein and daidzein, in the CD inhibit an aspect(s) of steroid release and/or synthesis common to testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. However, results of in vivo screening assays for endocrine-disrupting chemicals may be seriously affected by phytoestrogens in the diet, depending on content or potency of estrogenic activity; therefore, we recommend use in research of a standardized, open-formula diet in which estrogenic substances have been reduced to amounts that do not alter the results of studies that are influenced by exogenous estrogens.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 2: Graduate School of Science and Technology, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 3: National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0053 4: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Ariake National College of Technology, 150 Higashihagio-machi, Omuta, Fukuoka 836-8585, Japan
Publication date: 2004-02-01
Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.
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