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Open Access Hemodynamic Indices Versus Gastric Tonometric Measurements for Prognosis of Hemorrhagic Shock: A Porcine Model

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The aim of the study reported here was to assess the prognostic value of gastric tonometry and its implications in the initial phases of hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by use of femoral arterial bleeding in 12 hybrid swine under general anesthesia. Approximately 30% of the circulating blood volume was removed, until mean arterial pressure of 45 mmHg was reached. The shock conditions were observed over a limited period (90 min) by comparing traditional hemodynamic parameters with gastric tonometric measurements and tissue oxygenation. After a shock period of 90 min without pharmacologic treatment, blood was collected in acid-citrate dextrosetreated bags and was reinfused via the right femoral vein.

At the end of the experiment, seven animals had good hemodynamic recovery on reinfusion (group A), whereas values in five animals deceased in the same phase (group B). Hemodynamic and gastric tonometric results were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors.

Intravascular volume restoration and reduction of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) enabled the animals of group A to maintain standard ventricular kinetics and recover in terms of splanchnic regional flow. In addition, increase in intramucosal gastric pH (pHi), decrease in the pH-gap (pHa – Hi), and progressive restoration in gastric wall tissue oxygenation (PtO2) also were observed. These results suggest that useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications can be obtained by acquisition of simple hemodynamic measurements at the beginning of the shock period. On the basis of results of statistical analysis, only mean arterial pressure and SVR were good indicators of shock development, whereas pHi was not a significant factor in this experimental model.

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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Servizio di Chirurgia Sperimentale, Istituto di Ricerca Codivilla-Putti, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano, 1/10, 40136, Bologna 2: Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche, Rianimatorie e dei Trapianti, Policlinico Sant'Orsola, University of Bologna 3: Cattedra di Fisiopatologia Chirugica, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Publication date: 2003-04-01

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  • Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.

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