Background and Purpose: In mice, genetic engineering involves two general approaches—addition of an exogenous gene, resulting in transgenic mice, and use of knockout mice, which have a targeted mutation of an endogenous gene. The advantages of these approaches is that questions can be asked about the function of a particular gene in a living mammalian organism, taking into account interactions among cells, tissues, and organs under normal, disease, injury, and stress situations. Methods: Review of the literature concentrating principally on knockout mice and questions of unexpected phenotypes, lack of phenotype, redundancy, and effect of genetic background on phenotype will be discussed. Conclusion: There is little gene redundancy in mammals; knockout phenotypes exist even if none are immediately apparent; and investigating phenotypes in colonies of mixed genetic background may reveal not only more phenotypes, but also may lead to better understanding of the molecular or cellular mechanism underlying the phenotype and to discovery of modifier gene(s).
Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio
Publication date: April 1, 1999
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Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.
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