Immediate and Delayed Bilateral Transfer of Throwing Accuracy in Male and Female Children
Authors: Liu, John; Wrisberg, Craig A.
Source: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Volume 76, Number 1, March 2005 , pp. 20-27(8)
Abstract:In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the nature and persistence of bilateral transfer of a throwing skill for a large sample of male and female children. One hundred sixty children ages 6, 8, 10, and 12 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group with an equal number of boys and girls in each group. The experiment lasted 2 days and consisted of a pretest, a practice phase, an immediate transfer test, and a delayed transfer test. On the pretest, each participant performed 10 trials of a novel one-hand throwing task. Following the pretest, participants in the experimental group practiced the skill with the hand opposite the one used during the pretest until they had successfully reached a designated criterion for their age. Participants in the control group performed a balancing activity. Following the practice phase, all participants performed immediate (10 min later) and delayed (24 hr later) transfer tests under the same conditions as the pretest. The results revealed no group differences on the pretest but significantly higher throwing accuracy for the experimental group than the control group on both transfer tests. In addition, boys' throwing accuracy was significantly superior to the girls. It was concluded that bilateral transfer of throwing accuracy can be both a temporary and relatively persistent phenomenon for children and the superior throwing accuracy for boys is consistent with similar gender differences in throwing distance and throwing velocity (Thomas & French, 1985).
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 2005-03-01
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